Octopus is a mollusk from the class Cephalopoda (animal feet located on the head), the order Octopoda with coral reefs in the ocean as the main habitat. Octopus consists of 289 species which includes one third of the total species of the class Cephalopod. Octopus in English is called Octopus (Greek: Ὀκτάπους, eight feet) which often only refers to animals from the genus Octopus
Octopuses have 8 arms (not tentacles) with a suction device in the form of concave dots on the arms that are used to move on the seabed and catch prey. The arm of an octopus is a muscular hydrostate structure consisting almost entirely of a skeletal or skeletal muscle layer. Unlike other cephalopods, most octopuses of the Incirrata suborder have bodies consisting of muscles and without internal skeletons. Octopuses do not have a protective shell on the outside like the Nautilus and do not have an inner shell or bones like cuttlefish and squid. The beak is the hardest part of the octopus’s body which is used as a jaw to kill the prey and bite it into small pieces.
The highly flexible body allows the octopus to slip into the very narrow rock crevices on the seabed, especially while fleeing predatory fish such as the Moray sea eel. The lesser-known octopuses of the Cirrata suborder have two fins and an inner shell, reducing their ability to squeeze into narrow spaces.
Octopuses have a relatively short life span and some species only live as long as 6 months. Larger species such as the North Pacific giant octopus which can weigh up to 40 kilograms can live up to 5 years under suitable environmental conditions. Reproduction is one of the causes of death, male octopuses can only live a few months after mating and female octopuses die shortly after laying eggs. Death is caused by neglecting the octopus to eat for about a month while guarding the unhatched eggs.
The sheath on the stomach of an octopus is called a mantle which is made of muscle and looks like a pocket. Octopuses have three hearts consisting of two hearts to pump blood to two gills and a heart to pump blood to all parts of the body. Octopus blood contains hemocyanin protein which is rich in copper to transport oxygen. Compared to hemoglobin which is rich in iron, Hemocyanin is less efficient at transporting oxygen. Hemocyanin dissolves in plasma and is not bound by red blood cells, so octopus blood is pale blue. Octopuses breathe by drawing water into the mantle cavity through both gills and ejected through the siphon tube. Octopuses have gills that are very finely divided, coming from the growth of the outer or inner body that is experiencing vascularity.
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